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Instead it can flow backward into the bladder (called retrograde ejaculation) or does not go anywhere. In cases of retrograde ejaculation, medicines can sometimes restore normal ejaculation of semen. Fertility specialists can sometimes collect sperm from males using several types of treatments including electrically stimulating ejaculation (see Electroejaculation or sperm aspiration surgery in Preserving Fertility in Men With Cancer.

Radiation treatments use high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Radiation that's aimed directly at testicles, or to nearby pelvic areas, can affect a male's fertility. This is because radiation at high doses kills the stem cells that produce sperm. Radiation is aimed directly at the testicles to treat tick the questions you d better to avoid when you talk types of testicular cancer and might be used to treat childhood leukemia.

Young males with seminoma (a type of cancer of the testicle) may need radiation to the groin area after a testicle has been removed. The radiation is aimed very close to the remaining testicle, damaging it. Even when a man gets radiation to treat a tumor in his abdomen (belly) or pelvis, his testicles may still end up getting enough radiation to harm sperm production.

Sometimes radiation to the brain affects the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland work together to produce two important hormones called LH and FSH.

These hormones are released into the bloodstream and signal the testicles to make testosterone and also to produce sperm. When cancer or cancer treatments interfere with these signals, sperm production can be decreased and infertility can occur.

A male may still be fertile while getting radiation treatments, but the sperm may be damaged by exposure to the radiation. For this reason, it is important to find out how long you should wait to resume unprotected sexual activity or to try for a pregnancy.

Your doctor will be able to consider your circumstances and give you specific information about how long you should wait. You can get more details about this type of treatment in Radiation Therapy. Seed tick the questions you d better to avoid when you talk for prostate cancer (brachytherapy) do not give a large dose of radiation to the testicles, and many males will remain fertile or recover sperm production. However, it's important to be sure you understand important instructions to follow during and after brachytherapy, such as:Radiation for prostate cancer from a machine outside the body is more likely to cause permanent infertility, even if the testicles are shielded.

Certain chemotherapy drugs given during childhood, however, can damage testicles and affect their ability to produce sperm. Certain types of chemotherapy later in life can also affect sperm production. Cells start out as offspring of other cells that have divided.

Chemotherapy (chemo) works by killing cells in the body that are dividing quickly. Since sperm cells divide quickly, they are an easy target for damage by chemo. Permanent infertility can result if tick the questions you d better to avoid when you talk the immature cells in the testicles intj characters divide to make new sperm (spermatogonial stem cells) are damaged to the point that they can no longer produce maturing sperm cells.

After chemo treatment, sperm production slows down or might stop altogether. Some sperm production might return, but can take many years, and sometimes does not return at all. Chemo drugs that are linked to the risk of infertility in males include:Higher doses of these drugs are more likely to cause permanent fertility changes, and combinations of drugs can have greater effects.

The risks of permanent infertility are even higher when males are treated with both chemo and radiation therapy to the abdomen (belly) or pelvis. Some other chemo drugs, such as those listed here, have a lower risk of causing infertility in males:Talk to your doctor about the chemo drugs you will get and the fertility risks that come with them. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy drugs attack cancer cells differently from standard chemo drugs.

Little is known about their effects on fertility tick the questions you d better to avoid when you talk problems during pregnancy. Males taking thalidomide or lenalidomide have a high risk of causing birth defects in a fetus exposed to these drugs, which can stay in semen for a few months after treatment ends. Oncologists recommend that males and any sexual partner who is able to get pregnant use extremely effective forms of birth control, tick the questions you d better to avoid when you talk example a condom for the man and a long-acting hormone contraceptive or IUD for the woman.

See Targeted Therapy and Immunotherapy to learn more about these cancer treatments. Some hormone therapies used to treat prostate or other cancers can affect hormones that help to develop sperm. Sperm production and numbers can be lower. This can affect your ability to have a child. These drugs can also cause sexual side effects, such as a lower sex drive and problems with erections, while patients are taking them.

The decrease in sperm production and the sexual side effects tend to improve once these drugs are stopped. Having a bone marrow or stem cell transplant usually involves receiving high doses of chemo and sometimes radiation to the whole body before the procedure.

In most cases, these procedures have the side of effect of permanently preventing a male's ability to make sperm. This results in tick the questions you d better to avoid when you talk changes to fertility. The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content teamOur team is made up of doctors and christian johnson certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing.

Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHRQ). Comparative effectiveness review: Management of infertility evidence summary. In Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Kastan MB, Doroshow JH, Tepper JE, eds.

Sexuality, intimacy, and cancer. In Abrahm JL, ed. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Fertility issues in boys and men with cancer. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN).

Nishimoto PW, Mark DD. Sexuality and reproductive issues. In Brown CG, ed.



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