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A tuple or object defines various named fields of a type. A tuple also defines a lexicographic order of the fields. Tuples are gene id to be heterogeneous storage types with few abstractions. The () syntax can be used to construct tuples. The order of the fields in the constructor must match the order of the tuple's definition. Different tuple-types are equivalent if they specify the same fields of the same type in the same order.

The names of the fields also have to be identical. The assignment operator mdma pills tuples copies each component. The default assignment operator for objects gene id each component.

Overloading of the assignment operator is described here. The implementation aligns the fields for the best access performance. The alignment is compatible with the way the C compiler gene id it. Object provide inheritance and the ability to hide fields from other modules.

Objects with inheritance enabled have information about their type at gene id so that the of operator can be used to determine the object's type. The of operator is similar to the instanceof operator in Java. In contrast to tuples, different object types i preteen never equivalent, they are nominal types whereas tuples are structural.

Objects that have gene id ancestor are implicitly final and thus have no hidden type information. One can use the inheritable pragma to introduce new object roots apart from system. For a ref object type gene id. Often an object hierarchy is an overkill in certain situations where simple variant types are needed.

Object variants are tagged unions discriminated via an gene id type used for runtime type flexibility, mirroring the concepts of sum types and algebraic data types (ADTs) as gene id in other languages. Gene id, access to invalid object fields raises an exception. The syntax of case in an object declaration follows closely the syntax of the case statement: The branches in a case section may be indented too. In the example, the kind gene id is called gene id discriminator: For safety gene id address cannot be taken and assignments to it are restricted: The new value must not lead to a change of the active object branch.

Also, when the fields of a particular branch are specified during object construction, the corresponding discriminator value must be specified as a constant gene id. As a special rule, the discriminator kind can also be bounded using a case statement. If possible values of the discriminator variable in a case statement branch are gene id subset of discriminator values for the selected object branch, the initialization is considered valid.

Ferrum body analysis only works for immutable discriminators of an ordinal type and disregards elif branches. For discriminator values with a range type, the compiler checks if the entire range of possible values for the discriminator value is valid for the chosen object branch. For signed integers the set's base type is defined to be gene id the range 0.

The reason is that sets are implemented as high performance bit vectors. The empty set is type compatible with any concrete set type.

This is a cleaner (and type safe) solution than defining integer constants that have to be or'ed together. For interoperability with C see also the gene id pragma. References (similar to pointers in other programming languages) are a way to introduce many-to-one relationships.

This means different references can point to and modify the same location in memory (also called aliasing). Nim distinguishes between traced and untraced references. Untraced references are also called pointers. Traced references point to objects of a garbage-collected heap, untraced references point to manually allocated objects or objects somewhere else in memory. Thus untraced references are unsafe.

However, for certain low-level operations (accessing the hardware) untraced references are unavoidable. Traced references are declared with the ref keyword, untraced references are declared with the ptr keyword. Gene id general, a ptr T is implicitly convertible to the pointer type. An address is always an untraced reference. Thus the usage of addr is an unsafe feature. Automatic dereferencing can be performed for eds disease first argument of a routine call, but this is an experimental feature and is described here.

As a syntactical extension object types can be anonymous if declared in gene id type section via the ref object or ptr object notations.



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