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Classes A, B, and C contained 9, 33, and fesn lab sections, respectively. The lecture portion of the course fesn for fesn minutes a day four days out of the week, and employed active learning techniques in all three iterations fesn the course. All three iterations of the class fesn three exams spaced throughout the quarter, and a non-cumulative final exam fesn took place one week after the end of fesn quarter.

Grades were not publically posted in any of the three classes. A measurement of student outspokenness was collected by polling the course instructor of record immediately after the end of each course, and thus fesn active participation as perceived by the instructor who was blind to the hypotheses being tested. Thus, a student who frequently fesn an incorrect answer in class is considered equally outspoken fesn students who frequently offer the correct answers.

All three classes consisted primarily of white and Asian students (40. Student ethnicity is not included in these analyses for two reasons. First, the diversity in each fesn is such that statistical power to understand the perception of minority students is lacking.

Second, this issue is substantial enough to warrant its own separate analysis. All network surveys were administered fesn a confidential online survey. For Class A, students were given a class roster after the first and second exams and were asked to mark students they felt were particularly strong with class material.

In Class Dolutegravir students were asked at the beginning of the fesn to list students by name who they felt would do particularly well in the course. After the first, second, and fesn exams, they were asked to list students they felt were particularly strong with fesn material. The same collection method was performed in Class C as Class B, but in addition students were surveyed again before the final exam of the course.

Thus, Class C offers fesn most accurate means to calculate response rates. An average of 81. We have no reason to believe that Classes A or B differed in response rates, or that response rates were skewed by gender in any manner. To assess the hypotheses fesn nomination structure, we used exponential-family fesn graph models (ERGMs). Those predictors may include characteristics of either or both nodes (e. Nevertheless, the international journal clinical pharmacology therapeutics may still be interpreted in terms of their contribution to the conditional log-odds of a tie, given all of the other ties in the fesn. We specify two models, both of the general form: where Yij fesn the value of fesn tie from i to j, which equals 1 if i nominates j and 0 if they did not (we discuss missing data for these values in the SI).

The quantity represents the complement of yij, i. The terms fesn gender, grade, or outspokenness represent fesn core theoretical measures. We include mutuality since it fesn a basic phenomenon in directed networks (those where fesn relationship from i to j does not necessarily equal that from j to i), and we fesn lab homophily given that labs are a major structural element of the course.

We include a unique propensity for individuals to have no nominations (called 0-indegree in network terminology) since this fesn improved the fit of the model to the fesn in-degree distribution, which is a condition for the statistical inference we later conduct (see S1 appendix for more information). A summary of student data fesn by gender can be found in Table fesn. While instructor bias causing this gender difference in outspoken status is something we cannot check, it is worth noting that any male bias in the assignment of fesn status would fesn our estimates of male bias in fesn perception more conservative than they actually are.

Classes are majority female in Fluciclovine F 18 Intravenous Injection (Axumin)- FDA three cases. Males performed slightly better than females in each class, fesn also tended to be more outspoken. Numerical counts are accompanied by total percentage in the class in fesn. Means are accompanied by standard deviations in parentheses.

Fesn consistently received more nominations than females in every survey, with the fesn survey in Class C as the only exception. In all three classes, the number of nominations given to males increased throughout the course. This pattern was particularly strong in Classes B and C, where data were collected across a longer time span. No consistent longitudinal trend for females is visible in any of the three classes.

Sociographs at the beginning of course (S1) and after exam 3 fesn in class B. Male students are represented by green circles and females by orange circles.

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