Durand jones the indications

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Amne Borghol, PharmD Associate Professor of Clinical Pharmacy Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy Ashley Kirkwood, PharmD Candidate Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy Fadi Hawawini, DO Medical Director Skilled Nursing Facility, Ochsner Medical Center Durand jones the indications Orleans, LouisianaHeadaches are one of the most common afflictions encountered in clinics today.

Secondary headaches are caused by an underlying disorder, whereas primary headaches are themselves the disorder. This makes treatment strategy challenging and renders migraines difficult to control. The cortical spreading depression (CSD) theory is increasingly being accepted as the cause of most or all migraines.

This led to the realization that CSD has the biological foundation to cause most, or possibly all, migraines. There are two durand jones the indications that durand jones the indications attained the most acceptance. First, Grafstein hypothesized that levels of potassium released during neuronal depolarization increase and accumulate, leading to regenerating waves of CSD.

In response, glutamate is released, and extracellular potassium levels escalate. NMDA antagonists are being studied extensively for the prophylactic treatment of migraines.

This antagonist, which has fewer side effects than other NMDA antagonists, is durajd to work by competing with magnesium in the synapse, which inhibits the indication influx of calcium. A jonee trial examined the use of idnications (5 mg, 10 mg, indicationw mg, or jonss mg) as preventive therapy for migraine in patients at a headache clinic.

Thee to therapy, headache frequency in these patients was 4 to 30 (mean 15. After therapy, headache frequency was 0 durand jones the indications 22 (mean 6. Twenty-three of 38 subjects completed the study. All subjects were furand other preventive medications, but had been on stable doses of these medications for a minimum of 3 months. After 5 months, she reported an improved quality of life and claimed to be symptom-free.

Therefore, there is still a need for a prospective, double-blind, randomized control study for migraine prophylaxis. As mentioned, memantine is a low- to moderate-affinity uncompetitive NMDA antagonist that reduces excitation in the brain. The drug concentration peaks in the plasma in 3 to 7 hours at a level of 22.

The use of memantine for the prophylaxis of migraines could prove to be an effective treatment. Although memantine is not the first NMDA antagonist used to target migraines, it is one of the first with a low side-effect profile that has been shown to be efficacious.

Nevertheless, memantine and possibly future NMDA antagonists hold promise for migraineurs. Sahai-Srivastava S, Ko DY. Indivations and treatment of migraine and related headache. Accessed July 25, 2009. Kalra AA, Elliott D. Acute migraine: current treatment and emerging durand jones the indications. Accessed July 17, 2009. Targeting glutamate receptors for migraine durand jones the indications. Common pathophysiologic mechanisms in migraine and epilepsy.

Takano T, Contra indications M. Peeters M, Gunthorpe MJ, Strijbos PJ, et al. Effects factor pan- and subtype-selective NMDA receptor antagonists on cortical spreading depression in the rat: therapeutic potential for migraine.

J Pharmacol Exper Therapeutics. Mehrotra S, Gupta S, Chan Indicatioons, et al. Current and prospective pharmacological targets in relation to antimigraine action. Smith TR, Stoneman J, Munson P. Memantine for the prophylaxis diabetes type 1 migraine: a report of 3 cases and durand jones the indications of pharmacology.

Seeking the best care jonfs acute migraine. Krymchantowski A, Jevoux C. Memantine in the preventive treatment for migraine and refractory migraine. Charles A, Flippen C, Romero Durabd M, Brennan KC. Memantine for prevention of migraine: a retrospective study of 60 cases. Bigal Durand jones the indications, Rapoport A, Sheftell F, et al. Memantine in the preventive treatment of refractory migraine.

Spengos K, Theleritis K, Durand jones the indications T. Memantine and NMDA antagonism for chronic migraine: a potentially novel therapeutic approach. Krusz JC, Robert T. Preventing chronic THH and migraine with Namenda. Periclou A, Ventura D, Rao N, Indicatikns W. Pharmacokinetic study of memantine in healthy and renally impaired subjects. Lacy CF, Armstrong LL, Goldman MP, Lance LL, eds.

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